Richard Pyle with Shark Jaw

Ichthyology Collection

Chromis abyssus

Chromis abyssus

Shark on Decompression

Galapagos Shark

Centropyge boylei

Centropyge boylei

Chromis struhsakeri, Kure

Chromis struhsakeri

Endemic Fishes, Kure

Endemic Fishes, Kure

Belonoperca pylei

Belonoperca pylei

Richard Pyle, Palau

Collecting Specimens, Palau

Started in 1889, the Bishop Museum Ichthyology collection is among the largest and most complete for the vast Indo-Pacific region. It contains over 40,000 cataloged lots, including over 3,000 type specimens. The primary emphasis of the collection is tropical coral-reef fishes within the Indo-Pacific, but it also includes material from pelagic and deep-sea environments. The collection includes a few freshwater fishes, mostly from rivers and streams in the Hawaiian Islands and elsewhere in Oceania.

In addition to specimen, the collection also houses over 20,000 large-format color images of prepared specimens and 35-mm in-situ underwater photographs. The collection is fully digitized, with complete and annotated records for all specimens entered in the database, and many of the film images scanned.

The fish collection represents the bulk of the lifetime work of Dr. John E. Randall, Senior Ichthyologist (now Emeritus), who began working in the collection in 1965 and a half-century later continues to publish on fish systematics and biogeography. Dr. Richard L. Pyle continues to add to the collection, with an emphasis on collecting specimens from deep coral-reef ecosystems (so-called “Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems”, or the Coral-Reef “Twilight Zone”), using advanced diving technology.

In 1889, the Bishop Museum received its first collection of fishes, consisting of 27 specimens taken by the U.S. Fish Commission’s vessel Albatross off the west coast of North America. The collection grew steadily under Alvin Seale, who worked in the capacity of Collector for the Museum from 1899 to 1903. He collected fishes from throughout the Pacific, including Micronesia, French Polynesia, Cook Islands, New Hebrides (Vanuatu), and the Solomons Islands. Beginning in 1901, John W. Thompson, (who held the position of Preparator at the Museum from 1898 to 1927), deposited many Hawaiian fishes in the Museum’s collection. In addition to preserved specimens, he made plaster casts of about 600 species of fishes, including one representing the only remaining vestige a the type specimen. In 1922, Henry W. Fowler of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia came to Honolulu as a Bishop Museum Fellow for four months to commence study of the fishes of Oceania. Fowler described many new species from Hawai’i, and published on the fishes of Guam, Samoa, Tahiti Line Islands, and Hawaii in the Bishop Museum collection, culminating in the publication of The Fishes of Oceania and several supplements.

Little material was added to the Ichthyology collection between 1930 and 1965, but in late 1965, John E. Randall accepted a one-fourth time position as Ichthyologist at Bishop Museum. At the time, the collection catalog contained 5,556 entries. Almost all the jars of the fish collection contained more than one lot, each wrapped separately in cheesecloth. By 1970 each lot had been placed in a separate jar and the 70% ethanol replaced with 55% isopropanol (except for the types, which were retained in 70% ethanol). During this five-year period, Randall and his associates undertook an extensive program of collecting expeditions that more than doubled the size of the fish collection. Included among these expeditions, the Easter Island material, obtained with Gerald R. Allen in 1969 with support of the National Geographic Society, is the most extensive from this remote island, which is well known for its endemic marine biota. In 1970, a 6-month expedition to southeast Oceania on the schooner Westward was supported by a grant from the National Geographic Society to Randall. Fishes were collected at 26 different islands of the Tuamotu Archipelago, Pitcairn Group, Rapa and the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Society Islands, the Marquesas. For some of these islands (e.g., Rapa and the Pitcairn Group) these represented the first significant collections made at these localities.

From 1970 onwards, the collection has grown at an unprecedented rate, predominantly as a result of the wide-ranging and intensive collection efforts of Randall and his associates throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans. During his five decades with Bishop Museum, Randall led nearly 180 collecting expeditions to over seventy localities throughout the world. Most of these expeditions were concentrated within the Indo-Pacific region, and focused on coral-reef fishes, with a special emphasis on species inhabiting outer reef environments at depths of 100-200 feet (30-60 m).

Among the most important fish collections received in recent years are those made by Associate Zoologist Richard L. Pyle and colleagues, who have pioneered the use of advanced diving technologies to survey unexplored coral-reef habitats at depths beyond that which can be safely accessed using conventional SCUBA gear. These collections, which focus on coral reefs at depths of 165–500 feet (50–150 meters) – often referred to as “Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems”, or the coral-reef “Twilight Zone” – have revealed a tremendous wealth of undiscovered biodiversity. This research has garnered broad public interest, and has been featured in dozens of natural history documentaries broadcast on the Discovery Channel, the Learning Channel, and the BBC, as well as the IMAX® feature film, Coral Reef Adventure.

Collection activity in the 21st Century remains vigorous, with emphasis on discovering new records and new species in poorly-explored areas of the world, yielding significant additions to the collection.

The geographic emphasis for the fish collection focuses on the tropical Indo-Pacific region, with additional holdings from the tropical Eastern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

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Currently, the collection includes over 40,000 cataloged lots of coral-reef fishes, with a geographic emphasis on the Indo-Pacific region, and a habitat emphasis on fishes from tropical coral reefs. Most specimens are preserved in 55% Isopropyl alcohol, and are contained in glass jars. About half of the lots contain only a single specimen, but some lots contain over 100 specimens (average 2.8 specimens per lot, or about 100,000 specimens total). The collection also includes many large specimens contained in stainless steel or fiberglass bins, the largest of which is the Holotype of the Megamouth Shark (Megachasma pelagios).
All cataloged specimens are entered in the Museum database, and most records are complete and many include extensive annotations. Data are available through several major portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Facility portal, the iDigBio Portal, FishNet 2, and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Digitized images are available.
Ichthyological research at Bishop Musuem has primarily focused on the taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of coral-reef fishes throughout the vast Indo-Pacific region.  While the collection does house specimens from freshwater, pelagic, and deep-sea environments, the overwhelming majority of of the collection was accumulated through the research career of Dr. John E. “Jack” Randall. Jack has authored more publications (880)  and has discovered and documented more new species of coral-reef fishes (815), than any ichthyologist in history. He has also published landmark studies on food habits, mimicry, hybridization, and reproductive biology of fishes, and was instrumental in understanding the cause of Ciguatera fish poisoning. Now in his 90’s Jack continues to actively produce important scientific works.

Jack’s protégé, Dr. Richard L. Pyle, began working in the Museum’s ichthyology collection in 1986 and continues to to follow his mentor’s lead in exploration and discovery on tropical coral-reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. In particular, he has pioneered the use of mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreather technology to explore coral-reef habitat at depths below where conventional SCUBA can be safely used. These efforts have led to the discovery of more than a hundred new species of fishes, as well as helped foster an international recognition of the deep coral-reef environment, variously known as the Coral-Reef “Twilight Zone” or, more recently, “Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems”.

Richard L. Pyle, Ph.D., Associate Zoologist, Database Coordinator
808-848-4115 |

Arnold Y. Suzumoto, Ichthyology Collections Manager
808-848-4115 |

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