The collection holds large but unknown numbers of endangered, threatened and extinct species. For virtually all arthropods, not enough research has been completed to even begin listing endangered or threatened species. So this is a critical resource for understanding the previous working of and future problems associated with the disruption of natural processes. One example is the Hawaiian beetle collections of which possibly 75% can be considered for listing as endangered or threatened. Strongly documents pre-contact Hawaiian natural history (for example, beetles taken in excavations of early Hawaiian fireplaces, etc.). Important holdings in medical entomology, especially studies in disease vectors (e.g., parasites) in the South Pacific and Southeast Asia as a result of World War II. Much of the active collecting phase in the western Pacific & Asia was conducted in relatively intact environments that since have been strongly modified increasing the val­ue of the representative specimens.